Systems of Medicine in india

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AYURVEDA

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  • Ayurvedic system of medicine is of great antiquity and dates back to about 5000 years B.C. Ayurveda is a branch of the Vedas. The Rigveda and the Atharvveda are replete with information on various aspects of this system of medicine.
  • Ayurveda is not only a system of medicine but also represents a way of healthy living. Ayurveda is formed by the combination of two words viz. 'Ayur' means life and 'Veda' means knowledge. Thus, Ayurveda means the "knowledge of life". It is holistic in approach.
  • The universe, according to ancient Indian thought, is composed of five basic elements, the Pancha Mahabhootas, namely: Prithvi (earth), Apya (water), Teja (fire), Vayu (air) and Akash (ether). As the human body is similarly constituted, there is a fundamental harmony between universe and man, a healthy balance between macrocosm and the microcosm.
  • Ayurveda believes in the theory of Tridosha: Vata, Pitta and Kapha. Vata is a combination of two elements of the universe, namely air and ether, Pitta an amalgam of fire and earth and Kapha the combination of ether and water. According to this theory, the Tridoshas remain in a balanced state when the human body is in a healthy state. Disequilibrium causes disease.
  • Ayurvedic practitioners take into consideration the body constitution of a patient before prescribing any medicine, for the medicine, which suits a Vatiya (vata) constitution will not help a patient having Shlesmic (kapha) constitution.
  • True medicine, according to Ayurveda, is one which cures the disease without causing any side effect. It is in this respect that Ayurveda enjoys an advantage over the modern system of medicine.
  • Health according to Ayurveda, is the natural state of all the three aspects of the human being i.e. body, mind and the soul (Indriyas, Manas and Atma) in complete harmony. When the natural state comes in contact with unhappiness (Dukshasamayoga) diseases result.
  • A regulated diet is prescribed along with the medicine. The regimen of diet is as important as the medicines since the former helps restore the balance as much as the latter.
  • Ayurveda has eight distinct branches - (1) general medicine, (2) surgery, (3) ear, nose, throat, eye and mouth disease, (4)psychiatry, (5) midwifery and paediatrics, (6) toxicology, (7)rejuvenation and tonics and (8) aphrodisiacs. It is because of

these eight branches that Ayurveda is known as the Ashtanga-Ayurveda.
  • Practitioners of Ayurveda are keen observers. They also study the state of the body fluids, blood, flesh, fat, bone marrow, semen and vital essence or Ojas (which incidentally, is known as the vital force in the naturopathic system of medicine)
  • Ayurveda pays attention to the state of the digestion. The condition of the gastric juices guides the physician about the state of the patient. Attention is also paid to the condition of various channels (srotas) because Srotorodha (blockade of the channels) gives rise to disease.
  • It is only after a detailed diagnosis is made that the Ayurvedic practitioner starts the treatment. If the diagnosis is correct, the remedy would invariably be effective.
  • Ayurveda largely uses plants as raw materials for the manufacture of drugs, though making of animal, marine origin, metals and minerals are also used. Ayurvedic medicines are safe and have little or no known adverse side effects.
  • Ayurvedic system has preventive, promotive, mitigating and curative interventions


Kshar Sutra

An Ayurvedic para surgical intervention using medicated thread is extremely effective in the treatment of fistula-in-ano, conditions which demand gradual excision of overgrown soft tissues like polyps, wants, non healing chronic ulcers and sinuses and papillae. It has wide applications in a number of surgical conditions which pose problems for patients and surgeons. Ksharsutra method mentioned in the classical text has been scientifically validated by the Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS) and the Indian Council for Medical Research (ICMR). Trials were held in renowned medical institutes in various cities of India. The method 'is fully standardized and is extensively used. This system does not require hospitalization, antibiotics or anaesthesia, associated with gastrointestinal surgery. The success rate of ksharsutra treatment has been very high although it is an ambulatory procedure.

Panchakarma

Panchakarma is one of the unique therapeutic procedures in Ayurveda advocated for the radical elimination of disease causing factors and to maintain the equilibrium of doshas. The five fold measures include internal purification of the body or Vamana (Emesis), Virechana (Purgation), Anuvasana (Oil enema), Asthapana (Decoction


enema), and Nasya (Nasal insufflation). The chances of recurrence of the disease are very rare in patients having undergone Panchakarma therapy as it also promotes positive health by rejuvenating the vital body systems. It prevents ageing process and improves memory and the functioning of the sense organs. Panchakarma therapy is very effective in the management of auto-immune disorders, chronic ailments like rheumatic arthritis, bronchial asthma, GIT disorders and mental diseases, facial paralysis, sciatica, hemimplegia, paraplegia, post polio paralysis etc. Panchakarma requires some preparatory measures i.e. snehana (Oleation) and Svedana(Sudation and Samasarjana karma as Post Panchakarma measure. Pindasweda, Pizhichil, Sirobasti, Sirodhara, Sirolepana etc. are Kerala specialties in Panchakarma which refer to the five different aspects of the therapy.

A noval scientific procedure has been applied for standardization of certain fundamental procedures of Panchakarma by adopting certain bio-chemical parameters. Extensive clinical research is being conducted at various centers of CCRAS with promising results in treating various neuro muscular disorders and different other diseases. Apart from various research papers, CCRAS has published monographs entitled "Clinical and Experimental Studies on Rasayana Drugs & Panchakarma therapy" and "Management of Khanja and Pangu, Parinama Shula- A report on assessment of its classical therapy"

Disease in which Panchakarma therapy has been found successful

 

Disease

 

Hemiplegia/Paraplegia

 

Sciatica

Post Polio Paralysis

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Treatment

 

Snehana, Svedana, Abhyanga, Vamana,

Sastikasali Pinda Sveda, Virechana, Basti

Abhyanga, Snehana, Basti

Sastikasali Pinda Sveda, Abhyanga

Basti chikitsa,

Rukshasveda

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Takradhara                                                                                 Shirovasti


SIDDHA SYSTEM

  • Siddha medicine, which dates back. to around 5000 BC originated in southern parts of India. The word Siddha means "an object to be attained", "perfection" or "heavenly bliss".
  • According to Siddha system, the human body is composed of 96 Tatwas, 72,000 blood vessels and 1,300 nerves. Besides these, there are 10 Nadi (main arteries) 10, Vayu (vital pranas) and 10 Vengangal (natural functions). All of them play important roles in different functions of the body.
  • The Siddha medicine also recognises the role of three Humors, called Mukkuttram (Vatam, Pittam and Kapham). These humors remain in a balanced state in normal healthy person and disturbance in their equilibrium leads to ill health.
  • Siddha physicians base their diagnosis on Mukkuttram and Ennvagai Thervu (eight entities) i.e. Nadi (pulse), Na (tongue), Niram(colour) Moozhi(voice), kan(eyes), Sparsham(touch), Malam(faeces) and Muthiram(urine).
  • The treatment is mainly directed towards restoration of equilibrium of the three Humors (Vatam, Pittam and Kapham) and for the purpose one or more of the following cleansing procedures are adopted, (a) Vanthi(vomiting) (b) Bedhi(purgation), (c) Piccu(enema) and (d) Nasyam (nasal drops). After above procedures, the patient becomes suitable for receiving drugs for the treatment.
  • For Vatharogangal (neuromuscular disorders) a specialised treatment called Tokkanam is applied which is similar to Pancha Karma therapy of Ayurveda.
  • In this treatment, Siddha physician makes use of 12 types of medicated oils and five methods of application.

Siddha texts like 'Varma kannadi' and Varma Suthiram have described 108 vital points, which are located on vital junctions of arteries and veins joints etc. and are called Varmanilaigal. For the purpose of treatment, *Siddha physicians give pressure by specialised technique on these points to cure ailments

Education in Ayurveda and Siddha System

Medical education of 5 ½ years duration is imparted for undergraduates and 3 years duration for postgraduates. There are well developed and balanced curriculae for teaching and clinical exposure followed by internship. Medical institutions imparting undergraduate & post graduate education are affiliated to universities and have to maintain the standards laid down.


Regulatory Council

Central Council of Indian Medicine set up under an Act of Parliament regulates medical education in Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani Medicines, maintains standard of education, regulates medical practice, ethics, code of conduct and maintains a Central Register of practitioners.

Infrastructure

There is a vast infrastructure of medical institutions, practitioners, dispensaries, hospitals and pharmacies. There are 194 Undergraduate colleges with admission 'capacity of 7,200, 55 Postgraduate colleges, 3.67 lakh practitioners. There are about 2,258 hospitals (bed capacity 40,000), and l4,4l6 dispensaries. Banaras Hindu University, Gujarat Ayurveda University and National Institute of Ayurveda are important centres of teaching, research & treatment. In Siddha system there are 224 Hospitals having 1811 bed capacity, 363 dispensaries and about 13,000 practitioners. It has 2 under graduate colleges (150 admission capacity) and 2 post graduate colleges (80 admission capacity).

Pharmacopieial Standards

Pharmacopoeial standards have been evolved for a large number of drugs. There is a Central Act, namely, Drugs and Cosmetics Act and Rules made thereunder to regulate Ayurveda and Siddha drugs. Provision for drugs manufacturing licence, laboratory tests and good manufacturing practices lend credibility and acceptance of drugs.

Pharmacopoeial Laboratory for Indian Medicine

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Nirgundi (Vitex negundo inn.)

Pharmacopoeial Laboratory for Indian Medicine (PLIM), Ghaziabad, is a standard-setting-cum-testing laboratory for Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha Systems of Medicine, established in the year 1970 at the national level. The worked out data by the laboratory is published as Pharmacopoeia of Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha System? of Medicine. So far First and Second Volumes of Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India containing 80 and 78 monographs on single drugs of plant origin have been published. The third volume containing 100 drugs has also been published, 35 laboratories have also been entrusted work relating to Pharmacopoeial standards.





Collaboration and Integration with Modern System

The efficacy and effectiveness of certain drugs and procedures have been accepted by the modern system after evaluation and trial by modern scientific parameter. More and more procedures and drugs are being subjected to collaborative trial with modern medicine. Ayurveda and Siddha systems are being integrated with modern system in National Health Programmes and patient care.

Drugs manufacturers

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Tulasi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.)

Drugs manufacturers have to obtain licenses from the State Licensing Authorities and have to follow good manufacturing practices. There are about 9000 manufacturing units in Ayurvedic System. Indian Medicine Pharmaceutical Corporation (IMPCL) a Public sector undertaking under the Department of Indian System of Medicine & Homoeopathy is manufacturing over 300 classical Ayurvedic and Unani drugs.

Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha

  • The Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha is an apex body set up by the Government for the co-ordination, development and promotion of research on scientific lines in Ayurveda and Siddha.
  • Research activities of the Council include clinical and fundamental Research, drug research, Literary research and family welfare research.
  • The research activities of the Council, for the past three decades, have resulted in the evolution of drugs / formulations like Ayush-64 for Malaria, Ayush-56 for epilepsy, Ayush-82 for Diabetes mellitus, 777 Oil for Psoriasis and Pippalyadi Yog as. an oral contraceptive.
  • In Addition to this, efficacy of other drugs like Guggulu for medoroga, Mandukparni for mental retardation, Katuki for liver disorders and Amasaya shodhan in peptic disorders have been successfully demonstrated.
  • Preliminary trials have shown promising results in the treatment of leukemia (APML3) as evidenced by complete remission in most of the cases who have completed the full course of treatment.
  • The achievements made so far have been consolidated and promising drugs/

treatments have been identified for drug development. In this direction a new anti-diarrhoeal formulation has been launched for preliminary clinical screening. An anti-ageing formulation is also in the process of development.
  • The Clinical therapeutic trials in Siddha medicines have demonstrated the efficacy of Thambirachendooram in vali gunman (Peptic ulcer); Keezhanelli and Karifalai in manjal kamalai (Infective hepatitis); Padiga linga thuvar and Amaioduparpam in kazhichal (Dysenteric disorder); Annabedi chendooram in Veluppunoi (Anaemia); 777 Oil in kalanjaga padai (Psoriasis); sivanaiamirtham, akanakarudan kizhanugu churnam in karappan (Skin disorders); RGX / VK 2 / SKX etc in putrunoi (Cancer); koiyya / Avarai in neerrazhivu (Diabetes mellitus);Panchondhisudar Thailam in kakkai valippu (Epilepsy); Gowri chintamani and lingachendooram in sandhi vata soolai (Rheumatiod arthritis).
  • Through medico botanical survey more than one lakh twenty thousand plant specimens representing a large number of families, genera and species have been collected. About three thousand museum samples of drugs of plant, mineral and animal origins have also been collected besides information on plant based 3,800 folk medicines. 12 monographs covering the ethno medico practices in different states of the country, and a monograph entitled An appraisal of Tribal's folk Medicines' covering 2900 folk claims have also been published.
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Saptparna (Alstonia scholaris R.Br)
  • The Pharmacognostical investigations on about 175 important Ayurvedic medicine plants / drugs have been completed so far. A monograph 'Pharmacognosy of Indigenous Drugs' in three volumes covering 130 drugs along with their substitutes / adulterants has been published.
  • Chemical studies of 290 drugs used in Ayurveda and Siddha system of medicine have been carried out. A monograph entitled 'Phytochemical investigations of Certain Medicinal plants used in Ayurveda' covering 205 drugs has been published.
  • So far, more than 340 drugs used in Ayurveda and Siddha including single drugs, compound formulations and coded drugs have been investigated in vivo and vitro experimental models for routine pharmacological screening as well as for specific effects. A monograph entitled 'Pharmacological investigations of Certain Medicinal plants and compound Formulations used in Ayurveda and Siddha' Covering 246 drugs has been published.

  • Physico chemical values/data for about 500 single drugs, detailed standardization values for about 50 formulations and rapid analytical values for about 675 formulations of volume I and II of Ayurvedic formulary of Government of India have been worked out. The Council has published a monograph 'Pharmacopoeial Standards for Ayurvedic formulations' consisting of 431 formulations.
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Bhumihala (Sida veronicaefolia Lam.,)
  • The Council has published about 80 books / monographs and proceedings and also publishing quarterly Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha' and 'Bulletin of Ethno-Medico Botanical research' besides, a half yearly 'Bulletin of Indian Institute of History of Medicine'. The Council is also publishing a bimonthly News Letter to appraise scientific community with the activities of the Council. Literary Research in Siddha includes publication of 10 books, collection of 318 palm leaves and 23 old books.
  • The Council has prepared video films on Guggulu and Shilajeeta, besides another film on activities and achievements of the Council. Two more video films on Kshar Sutra and Panchakarma Chikitsa are in the process.
  • Clinical screening and pharmacological studies of the oral contraceptive agents are being carried out under family welfare research programme. So far 12 recipes at clinical level and about 25 drugs through pharmacological studies have been attempted.
  • The Council has also obtained 18 patents for the process for isolation of active principles / preparations.
  • The council has signed MOU with National Research Development Corporation, New Delhi for patenting and commercialization of new formulations based on the studies carried out so far.
  • The Council has its own website : www.ccras.com and bibliography of research paper published by the scientists working in the council.
  • Ayurveda and Siddha have particular strength in treating certain diseases and chronic ailments. These are

Ayurveda :Rheumatoid arthritis, hyper acidity, peptic ulcer, bronchial asthma, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, dysurea, urinary calculi, filariasis, mental retardation,

skin disease, hemiphegia, sciatica, lipid disorders, epilepsy, schizophrenia, malaria fever, jaundice, fistula-in-ano, error of refraction, nephrotic syndrome.

Siddha :Peptic ulcer, infective hepatitis, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer.



Extra Mural Research


Extra mural research is also being encouraged by scientific institutions and laboratories of repute. Modern instiutions have also taken up research in Ayurvedic drugs.

Address of the Council

Director,
Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha.
Jawahar Lal Nehru Bhartiya Chikitsa Avum Anusandhan Bhawan,
61-65 Institutional Area, Opposite D Block,
Janak Puri, New Delhi 110058
Tel. No. : 91-11-5624457
Fax. No. : 91-11-5528748
E-mail :ccras@ndf.vsnl.net.in


UNANI MEDICINE




Origin and Development

The Unani System of medicine owes, as its name suggests, its origin to Greece. It was the Greek Philosopher-physician Hippocrates(460-377 BC) who freed Medicine from the realm of superstition and magic, and gave it the status of Science. The theoretical framework of Unani Medicine is based on the teachings of Hippocrates. After Hippocrates a number of other Greek scholars enriched the system considerably. Of them Galen (131-210 AD) stands out as the one who stabilised its foundation, on which Arab physicians like Rhazes (850-925 AD) and Avicenna (980-1037 AD) constructed an imposing edifice. Unani medicine got enriched by imbibing what was best in the contemporary system of traditional medicine in Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Persia, India, China and other Middle East and Far East countries.

In India, the Unani System of medicine was introduced by the Arabs. Soon it took firm roots in the soil. The Delhi Sultans, the Khiljis, the Tughlaqus and the Mughal Emperors provided state patronage to the scholars and even enrolled some as state employees and court physicians. The system found immediate favour with the masses and soon spread all over the country.

During the British rule, Unani Medicine suffered a setback and its development was hampered due to withdrawal of governmental patronage. But since the system enjoyed faith among the masses it continued to be practised. An outstanding physician and scholar of Unani Medicine, Hakim Ajmal Khan (1868-1927) championed the cause of the Unani system in India. The development of Unani Medicine as well as other


Indian systems of Medicine gained considerable momentum after independence Even prior to independence a Health Survey and Development Committee was appointed in the Year 1943. The Committee underscored the future role to be played by the indigenous systems of medicine of India.

At present the Unani system of medicine, with its own recognized practitioners, hospitals and educational and research institutions, forms an integral part of the national health care delivery systems and is the world leader.

Fundamentals

Unani Medicine, is based on the principles put forward by Hippocrates. He was the first person to establish that disease was a natural process, that its symptoms were the reactions of the body to the disease, and that the chief function of the physician was to aid the natural forces of the body. He was the first physician to introduce the method of taking medical histories. His chief contribution to the medical realm is the humoral theory.

The Humors

The humoral theory presupposes the presence of four humors - Dam (blood), Balgham (phlegm), safra (yellow bile) and Sauda (Black bile) - in the body. The temperament of persons are expressed by the words sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric and melancholic according to the preponderance in them of humors - blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile, respectively. The humors themselves are assigned temperaments - blood is hot and moist, phlegm cold and moist, yellow bile hot and dry, and black bile cold and dry. Every person is supposed to have a unique humoral constitution which represents his healthy state. To maintain the correct humoral balance there is a power of self —preservation or adjustment called quwwat-e-Mudabbira (medicatrix naturae) in the body. If this power weakens, imbalance in the humoral composition is bound to occur which causes disease. In Unani Medicine, great reliance is placed on this power. The medicines used in this system, in fact, help the body to regain this power to an optimum level and thereby restore humoral balance, thus restoring health. Also, correct diet and digestion are considered necessary to maintain humoral balance.

Diagnosis

Another distinctive feature of the Unani system of medicine is its emphasis on diagnosing a disease through Nabz (pulse), a rhythmic expansion of arteries which is felt by fingers. Other methods of diagnosis include examination of Baul (urine), Baraz (stool) etc.


Prevention of Disease

Unani system of medicine recognizes the influence of surroundings and ecological conditions on the state of health of human beings. The system aims at restoring the equilibrium of various elements and faculties of the human body. It has laid down six essential prerequisites for the prevention of diseases and places great emphasis, on the one hand, on the maintenance of proper ecological balance and, on the other, on keeping water, food and air free from pollution. These essentials, known as 'Asbab-e-Sitta Zarooriya', are air, food and drinks, bodily movement and repose, psychic movement and repose, sleep and wakefulness, and excretion and retention.

Therapeutics

In Unani system of medicine various types of treatment are employed, such as liaj bil-Tadbeer (regimental therapy), liaj bil-Ghiza (dietotherapy), liaj bid-Dawa (pharmacotherapy) and jarahat (surgery).

The regimental therapy includes venesection, cupping, diaphoresis, diuresis, Turkish bath, massage, cauterization, purgin & emesis, exercise, leeching etc. Dietotherapy aims at treating certain ailments by administration of specific diets or by regulating the quantity and quality of food, whereas pharmacotherapy deals with the use of naturally occurring drugs, mostly herbal, though drugs of animal and mineral origin are also used. Similarly, surgery has also been in use in this system for quite long. In fact, the ancient physicians of Unani medicine were pioneers in this field and had developed their own instruments and techniques.
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Some Unani single drugs drawn from nature

In Unani Medicine, single drugs or their combinations in raw form are preferred over compound formulations. Further, the materia medica of Unani medicine being vast, the medicines are easy to get for most of them are available locally. The naturally occuring drugs used in this system are symbolic of life and are generally free from side-effects, and such drugs as are toxic in crude form are processed and purified in many ways before use

In Unani medicine, although general preference is for single drugs, compound formulations are also used in the treatment of various complex and chronic disorders. The medicines administered go well with the temperament of the patient, thus accelerating the process of recovery and also eliminating the risk of drug reaction.


Infrastructure

There are 39 undergraduate colleges imparting education in Unani system and five postgraduate colleges imparting training in nine postgraduate disciplines / departments. These colleges have a total admission capacity of about 1,370 students per year for undergraduate courses. They are either Government institutions or set up by voluntary organizations. All these educational institutions are affiliated to different universities.

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Govt. Nizamia Tibbi College, Hyderabad

Postgraduate education and research facilities are available in the subjects of Ilmul Advia (Pharmacology), Moalijat (Medicine), Kulliyat (Basic Principles), Hifzan-e-Sehat (Hygiene), Tashree (Anatomy) Jarrahiyat (Surgery) and Qabala-wa-Amraz-e-Niswan. (Obstetrics and Gynaecology) at Ajmal Khan Tibbia College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh and in the subjects of Moalijat (Medicine) and Amraz-e- Niswan (Gynaecology) and Amraz-e-Atfal (Paedriatics) at Government Nizamiah Tibbi College, Hyderabad. The Hamdard Tibbi College, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi has also started post- graduation in Moalijat (Medicine) and Ilmul Advia (Pharmacology), Hifzan-e-Sehat (Hygiene) and Jarrahiyat (Surgery). The total admission capacity to these courses in all these colleges is 37.

A National Institute of Unani Medicine (NIUM) Bangalore, was set up by Government of India in collaboration of the Government of Karnataka. A principal institution of Unani medicine in the country, the NIUM is being developed as a demonstrable model of post-graduate teaching training and research in the system.

Besides, there are 41,221 registered practitioners, 196 hospitals (bed strength 4872), 970 dispensaries and 500 pharmacies of Unani medicine in the country.

Indian Medicines Pharmaceutical Corporation Limited (IMPCL) Mohan U.P. a Government of India Undertaking, is engaged in the manufacture of Unani drugs

Education

Medical education in Unani system is recognized by the Government of India. Five-and-a-half-year course is conducted for award of Bachelor of Unani Medicine, and


surgery (BUMS). Postgraduate course in Unani medicine is of three years' duration. Facilities for research are also available in Unani colleges. The education and training facilities in Unani system of medicine are presently being monitored by the Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM), which is a statutory body.

Central Council of Indian Medicine

The Central Council of Indian medicine has been established under an Act of Parliament known as Indian Medicine Central Council Act 1970 to regulate and maintain standards of education, and to maintain central register of practitioners. The medical qualifications are recognized by the Government of India on the basis of recommendations to this effect made by the Council. There is a provision for withdrawal of recognition of medical qualification when standards of education are not maintained as per norms and regulations made by the Council.

Drug Control

The licensing for manufacture of Unani drugs and related issues are being regulated under Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940, as amended from time to time, and the rules made thereunder. Drugs Technical Advisory Board has also been constituted under the Act. There is a permanent Unani Pharmacopoeia Committee under Government of India in the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, which consists of experts in Unani Medicine, chemists, botanists and pharmacologists. The pharmacopoeial standards are being finalized in respect of single and compound drugs.

National formulary of Unani Medicine, Part-1 and Part - II containing 643 formulations, and Unani Pharmacopoeia of India, part-I containing 45 standard drugs have also been published.

Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine

The Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine (CCRUM) was established in the year 1978 with the objective of undertaking multifaceted research activities in Unani Medicine. The Council started in 1979 and since then has been engaged in systematic research and development on various fundamental and applied aspects of Unani Medicine. The research programmes of the Council include clinical research, drug standardization research, literary research, survey and cultivation of medicinal plants and Family Welfare research. These programmes are being carried out through a network of 31 research institutes / units functioning under the Council in different parts of the country. During the past 22 years of its existence the Council has made significant strides in its research programmes.


Clinical Research Programme

The clinical research programme of the Council aims at critical appraisal of the theory of pathogenesis, symptomatology, clinical methods of diagnosis and prognosis, principles, lines and methods of treatment enunciated in the classical texts of Unani system of medicine.

A patient of vitiligo before and after Unani medical treatment

The diseases on which clinical trials have been undertaken include Bars (Vitiligo), Nar-e-Farsi (Eczema), Dausadaf (Psoriasis), Iltehab-e-Kabid (Infective hepatitis), Hasat-ul-Kuliya wa Masana (Urolithiasis), Qarah-e-Medda wa Asna-e-Ashari (Duodenal ulcer), Ishal-e-Muzmin (Chronic diarrhoea), Ishal-e-Aftal (Infantile diarrhoea), Deedan-e-Ama (Helminthiasis), Humma-e-Ijamia (Malaria), Zusantaria Mevi (Amoebic dysentery), Kala Azar (Leishmaniasis), Daul Feel (Filariasis), Ziabetus Sukkari (Diabetes mellitus), Waja-ul-Mafasil (Rheumatoid arthritis), Iltehab-e-Tajaweef-e-Anf (Sinusitis), Zeeq-un-Nafas (Bronchial asthma), Sailanur Rahem (Leucorrhoea) and Kasrat-e-Shahmuddam (Hyperlipidemia). The Council has so far tested 55 new formulations / drugs in different diseases.

The Council has achieved significant leads in successful treatment of some chronic and stubborn diseases such as; Bars (Vitiligo), Waja-ul-Mafasil, (Rheumatoid arthritis), Nar-e-Farsi, (Eczema), Dau-Sadaf (Psoriasis), Zeequn-Nafas (Bronchial asthma), Iltheb-e-Kabid (Infective hepatitis), Humma-e-Ijamia (Malaria) and Daul-Feel (Filariasis) and Kasrat-e-Shahmuddam (Hyperlipidemia).

In the treatment of Bars (Vitiligo) the Council has achieved some great success. For Iltehab-e-Kabid (Infective hepatitis) the Council has developed four formulations having therapeutic efficacies ranging form 95% to 100%. These formulations have


been found to successfully treat Yarqan (Jaundice), Iltehab-e-Kabid Had (Acute infective hepatitis) and (Chronic hepatitis) with in two to four weeks, and have also shown their efficacies in Hepatitis-B cases.

By 1996, the Council had developed 12 drugs for different ailments, which have already been decoded and the results of the clinical trials of these drugs published in the form of monographs. The Council has also filed patent rights on seven formulations it has developed for some common diseases. The seven formulations include two for Waja-ul-Mafasil (Rheumatoid arthritis), two for Zeequn Nafas (Bronchial asthma), two for Iltehab-e-Kabid (Infective hepatitis) and one for Humma-e-Ijamia (Malaria)Eleven other drugs developed by the Council are in the process of patentisation. Pharmacological studies on Unani drugs under Clinical evaluation in various diseases are also being conducted at different centres of the Council.

For common aliments the Council has also developed a kit of 35 Unani medicines prepared from very common available plants/drugs. Efficacies of these formulations have also been validated on scientific lines. These formulations are very cost effective.

The Council has also evaluated the beneficial effects of certain Unani therapies such as Munzij and Mushil therapy, Hajamat (cupping) etc. on scientific lines in some of the diseases. These therapies have been proved of immense therapeutic value in the successful treatment of some chronic diseases such as Rheumatoid arthritis, Vitiligo, Filariasis and Sinusitis.

Research on fundamental aspects of Unani Medicine has also been undertaken to test and interpret scientifically the concept of humors and temperaments and its relation with health and diseases.

Drug Standardisation Research Programme

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Researchers of the Council engaged in drug standardization


The programme of drug standardization is mainly concerned with evolving standards of single and compound Unani drugs of proven efficacy included in the National Formulary of Unani Medicine for their incorporation in the official Unani Pharmacopoeia of India. Standardization of single drugs includes Unani and scientific documentation,





pharmacognosy and phytochemistry of the drugs. Similarly, the standardization of Unani formulations has been undertaken in order to establish standards for the drugs as well as the methods of their manufacture. Such type of work has been undertaken for the first time in the history of Unani Medicine.

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A Unani medicinal plant, Asgandh (Withania sominifera Dunal)

The Council has so far been able to finalize physico-chemical standards for 212 single drugs and 385 compound formulations. The standards developed by the Council in respect of both single and compound Unani drugs have been accepted by the Unani Pharmacopoeia Committee for incorporation in the Unani Pharmacopoeia of India. So far the Committee has accepted monographs on 122 single and 192 compound Unani drugs.


Survey & Cultivation of Medicinal Plants Programmes

The programme envisages systematic ethnopharmacological surveys of various forest areas/ranges of the country for the collection of medicinal plants used in Unani system. Under this programme experimental cultivation of such drug plants as are rare or imported at present, but can be cultivated in India, is also being undertaken. Under this programme the Council's researchers have undertaken ethnobotanical explorations in different States collecting about 47,656 folk plants specimens belonging to about 1,400 taxa. Besides, 6,650 folk claims collected during the surveys from the tribal communities are being documented.

Literary Research Programme

File:-05a unani medicines10.jpg
A page of a rare manuscript o/'Kitab al-Hawi by Zakaria Raz

The literary research programme of the Council includes editing, compilation and translation of rare manuscripts of Unani system of medicine. This programme is being carried out through a Literary Research Institute of Unani Medicine in New Delhi. Under this programme the






Council has been able to translate 32 volumes of important manuscripts/books form Arabic/Persian into Urdu and publish them.

Family Welfare Research Programme

The Council has embarked upon a programme to clinically screen the oral contraceptive agents described in the classical literature of Unani system of medicine. This programme aims at finding out an effective, potent, cheap and safe Unani oral contraceptive free from side-effects. The Council has developed a Unani glactogauge that not only increases the period of lactation but also produces spacing between the two births.

The Council has also published a book entitled "The Concept of Birth Control in Unani Medicine " compiled on the basis of references available in the Unani classics.

Address of the Council

Director,
Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine
Jawahar Lal Nehru Bhartiya Chikitsa Avum Anusandhan Bhawan,
61-65 Institutional Area, Opposite D Block,
Janak Puri, New Delhi 110058
Tel. No. 91-11-5611981
Fax. No. 91-11-5611965
E-mail : ccrum@dell3.vsnl.net.in
ccrum@mantraonline.com
Web-site http://www.unanimedicine.com
http://www.unanimedicine.org.


Background

Homoeopathy system of medicine was discovered and developed by a German physician, Dr. Christian Freidrich Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843) a celebrated scientist, chemist and one of the leading physicians of his times, in the 18th and early 19th century. Homoeopathy came to India in 1839 when a French traveller Dr. John Martin Honigberger who learnt Homoeopathy from Dr. Samuel Hahnemann, visited India and successfully treated Maharaja Ranjit Singh at Lahore. It has blended so well into the roots and traditions of the country that it is now recognized as one of the National Systems of Medicine.

File:-06 homoeopathy2.jpg
Samuel Hahnemann

Homoeopathy is a system of medicine which works on the simple principle expressed by the maxim "Similia Similibus Curentur"- let likes be treated by likes. It means treating diseases with remedies, usually prescribed according to homoeopathic principles in dynamic doses which would produce symptoms like those of disease in a healthy person.

For the development of Homoeopathy in the country, the Government of India has taken several steps by constituting the Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia Committee, establishing a Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia Laboratory at Ghaziabad, a Central Council of Homoeopathy at New Delhi, Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy at New Delhi and a National Institute of Homoeopathy at Kolkatta (hitherto Calcutta).

Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia Committee

Government of India constituted Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia Committee in 1962 and re-constitutes it from time to time. This Committee has finalized standards of Homoeopathic drugs which run into 916 monographs. Six volumes of Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of India have already been published containing standards of 710 drugs and rest are being published in Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of India Vol. VII and VIII.

Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940

Homoeopathic drugs, manufacture and licensing thereof and all other matters


connected therewith are covered under Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and Rules thereunder. System of regulation and monitoring and enforcement is well laid down for Homoeopathic drugs.

Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia Laboratory, Ghaziabad.

Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia Laboratory was established in the year 1975 at Ghaziabad (Uttar Pradesh) to work out the standards for testing the quality and purity of Homoeopathic drugs. The laboratory has also been designated as Drug Testing Laboratory for the purpose of quality control. The laboratory submits data of Homoeopathic drugs to the Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia Committee for their consideration and approval. The laboratory maintains a medicinal plant garden an conducts survey and collection of medicinal plants. It has a Computerized Information Centre-cum-Documentation Cell for dissemination of technical information of Homoeopathic drugs.

Address :

Director
Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia Laboratory ,
Central Government Offices Building-I,
Kamla Nehru Nagar, Ghaziabad-201 002.

Central Council of Homoeopathy

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Khus toxicodendron Mich.

The Central Council of Homoeopathy has been constituted under the provisions of Homoeopathy Central Council Act, 1973 for maintenance of Central Register of Homoeopathy and for matters connected therewith viz., standardization of Homoeopathic education, code of ethics, etc. Central Council of Homoeopathy have made regulations to conduct 5½ years BHMS (Bachelor of Homoeopathic Medicine and Surgery) Degree Course and 3 years Postgraduate course (M.D.) besides Minimum Standard Regulations etc.
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Address :

Registrar-cum -Secretary
Central Council of Homoeopathy, 5th & 6th Floor ,
Jawahar Lal Nehru Bhartiya Chikitsa Avum
Homoeopathic Anusandhan Bhavan,
61-65, Institutional Area, Opposite 'D' Block, Janakpuri,
New Delhi-11 0 058. Tel.: 91-11-5622906

Infrastructure

India has a vast infrastructure of medical institutions, dispensaries, hospitals registered practitioners and drug manufacturing units. These are :

Registered Medical Practitioners 1,89,361
Institutionally Qualified Practitioners 75,709
Number of Dispensaries 7,155
Number of Hospitals 297
Bed Strength 12,836
No. of Teaching Institutions-Under Graduate 155
No. of Institutions imparting Post Graduate Courses 15
No. of Specialties in Post Graduate 3
Licensed Pharmacies manufacturing Homoeopathic medicines 857


Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy

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Tyhphora asthmatica W&A.

Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy was established in 1978 at New Delhi. It is a premier research organization engaged in research on various fundamental and applied aspects of Homoeopathy and has a network of 51 research centers functioning in different parts of the country .The Council's activities include clinical research on selected problems, clinical research in tribal areas, drug proving research, drug standardization, clinical verification, literary research and, survey and cultivation of medicinal plants. The Council has made significant achievements in the treatment of behavioral disorders, respiratory allergies, skin allergies, amoebiasis, filarial and osteoarthritis. The






clinical trials in the treatment of HIV / AIDS have also shown positive leads. Fifty one homoeopathic drugs including 24 drugs of Indian origin, have been proved by the Council. The pharmacognostic and physico-chemical standards for 136 drugs have been worked out and work on 102 other drugs is in progress. The Council has successfully cultivated Cineraria maritima, an exotic plant used in the preparation of widely used homoeopathic eye drops and a number of other medicinal plants used in Homoeopathy are being raised and maintained in demonstration garden at Udhagamandalam (Ooty), Tamilnadu. Under the Literary Research programme 15 chapters of Kent's General Repertory of Homoeopathic Materia Medica have been revised and published. Council has published 20 priced and 4 non-priced publications. Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy also brings out a quarterly bulletin and the CCRH News Letter which can be obtained from the Director on request.

Address :

Director
Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy,
Jawahar Lal Nehru Bhartiya Chikitsa Avum Homoeopathic
Anusandhan Bhavan, 61-65, Institutional Area,
Opposite 'D' Block, Janakpuri, New Delhi-11 0 058.
Tel.: 91-11-5505523, 91-11-5592651,91-11-5592162 Fax: 91-ll-5506o60
E-mail : ccrh@del3. vsnl.net.in Website : www -ccrhindia.org

National Institute of Homoeopathy, Kolkatta

File:-06 homoeopathy5.jpg
Cineraria maritima Linna.

National InstituteCineraria maritima Linna. of Homoeopathy, Kolkatta, an autonomous organization set up by the Government of India is affiliated to the University of Kolkatta. It was established in 1975 as a model Institute of Homoeopathy. The main objectives of the Institute are to develop a high standard of teaching, training and research in all aspects of the






Homoeopathic system of medicine. It presently conducts a regular degree course in Homoeopathy -BHMS of 5 ½ years duration and also has an established Faculty of Homoeopathy for Post Graduate Teaching (M.D. Horn.).

A research project on clinical, haematological, biochemical and immunological studies on patients with chronic Arsenic toxicity and its homoeopathic management has been undertaken by the Institute. The Institute has its own herb garden situated in Kalyani on 24.97 acres of land. Indian species as well as exotic plants are grown there.

Address:


Director
National Institute of Homoeopathy,
Block GE, Sector III, Salt Lake City Kolkatta- 700091
Tel. : 91-33-3370970 Fax : 91-33-3375295


YOGA




Introduction

  • Concept and practice of Yoga originated in India several thousands years ago. Its founders were great Saints and Sages. The Great Yogis gave rational interpretation to their experiences of Yoga and brought about a practical and scientifically sound method within every one's reach. Yoga today is no longer restricted to hermits; saints, sages, it has taken its place in our every day lives and has aroused a world wide awakening and acceptance in the last few decades. The science of Yoga and its techniques have now been re-oriented to suit modern sociological and physiological needs and lifestyles. Experts practitioners and protagonists of various branches of medicine including modern medical science are realizing the role of these techniques in the prevention of disease, mitigation and cure of disease and promotion of health.
  • Yoga is one among the six systems of Vedic philosophy. Maharishi Patanjali, rightly called the "father of Yoga" compiled and refined various aspects of Yoga systematically in his "Yoga sutras" (aphorisms). He advocated the eight fold path of Yoga, popularly known as "Ashtanga Yoga" for all-round development of human personality. These are - Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana & Samadhi. These components advocate restraint, observance of austerity, physical postures, breathing exercises, restraining the sense organs, contemplation, meditation and Smadhi. These steps are believed to have potential for the improvement of physical health by encouraging better circulation of oxygenated blood in the body, retraining the sense organs and thereby inducing tranquillity and serenity of mind. The practice of Yoga prevents psychosomatic disorders/diseases and improves an individual's resistance and ability to endure stressful situations.


Definition of Yoga

Yoga is a method by which one can develop one's inherent powers in a balanced manner. It offers the means to reach complete self-realization. The literal meaning of the Sanskrit word Yoga is to 'yoke'. Accordingly, Yoga can be defined as a means for uniting the individual spirit 'with the universal spirit.


Types of Yoga

  1. Japa Yoga : To concentrate one's mind on Divine name or holy syllable, mantra etc. like 'OM', 'Rama', 'Allah', 'God', Vahe Guru etc.
  2. Karma Yoga : Teaches us to perform all actions without having any desires for their fruit. In this Sadhana a Yogi considers his duty as a divine action, performs it with whole hearted dedication but shuns away all desire
  3. Gyana Yoga : Gyan Yoga teaches us to discriminate between the Self and the non-self and to acquire the knowledge of one's spiritual entity through the study of scriptures, company of Saints and practice of meditation.
  4. Hatha Yoga : It teaches us to purify and stabilize the body and vital energy through the practice of cleansing acts, diet regulation, asanas, pranayama and mudras and thereby acquire the purity and stability of mind. It enables a sadhaka to internalize his vision, awaken the dormant mystic force (kundalini) which leads him to the vibrant and radiant state of self-realization known as Samadhi.
  5. Bhakti Yoga : Bhakti Yoga is a system of intense devotion, with emphasis on complete surrender to Divine Will. The true follower of Bhakti is free from egoism, is humble and is unaffected by the dualities of the world.
  6. Raja Yoga : Raja Yoga popularly known as "Ashtanga Yoga" is for all round development of Human personality. These are - Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana & Samadhi.

YAMAS (Observances):

Practice of Yamas pave way to increase the power of concentration, mental purity and steadiness. The following are the Yamas :
i.) Ahimsa (not to harm others) iii.) Asteya (not to steal)
ii.) Satya (to be truthful) iv.) Brahmacharya (celibacy)
v.) Aparigraha (not to possess beyond actual needs).

NIYAMAS (Resraints):

There are five Niyamas :
i) Shaucha (external and internal purification)
ii) Santosha (contentment)
iii) Tapa (to make right efforts to achieve goal).
iv) Swadhyaya (to study right scriptures to acquire correct knowledge of self and the supreme divinity).
v) Ishwar pranidhana (complete surrender to the divine will)

SURYA NAMASKAR

Surya Namaskar is the most useful and popular mode of yogic exercises, which briefly bestows the benefits of Asanas, Pranayama and Mudras altogether. It consists

of a series of 12 postures, which are performed early in the morning facing the rising Sun. Surya Namaskar energizes the entire neuro-glandular and neuro-muscular system of the body and its regular practice ensures a balanced supply of oxygenated blood and perfect harmony to all the systems of the body, thus invigorates the entire psychosomatic system of human constitution.

YOGA ASANAS

Asana means a state of being in which one can remain steady, calm, quiet and comfortable both physically and mentally.

Asanas can also be performed for curative or for promoting health by gently stretching the muscles, massaging the internal organs and toning the nerves throughout the body. The health of the practitioners can be improved and many diseases can be eliminated.






Some important Asanas & their benefits:

  • Padmasana- For physical, mental and emotional equilibrium.
  • Vajrasana- Regular practice for 5-10 minutes after meal kindles up digestion. It is useful for insomnia and sleeplessness.
  • Mandukasana- Increases the digestion, cures constipation, dyspepsia and flatulence.
  • Utanamandukasana- Useful in the treatment for lumbago, cervical pain, bronchitis and diabetes.
  • Gomukhasana- Beneficial in curing bronchial asthma, rheumatic pain in knees and ankles and improves the capacity of lungs.
  • Ardhamatsyendrasana- Useful in the cure of diabetes and cervical spondylosis.
  • Kakasana- Energizes the thighs, calves and ankles.
  • Simhasana- Prevent the disorders related to neck, eyes, nose and ears.
  • Shavasana- Imparts physical, mental and emotional relaxation.
  • Suptapavanamuktasana- Useful in curing gastric trouble, flatulence and back-pain.
  • Urdhvasarvangasana- Very beneficial for the health of eyes, face, brain and the hair.
  • Sarvangasana- Brings suppleness to the spine and prevents the ailment of respiratory system and neck.
  • Chakarasana- Harmonizes the secretion of all glands, reduces obesity and is effective in the cure of bronchial asthma and diabetes.
  • Paschimottanasana- Useful for physical, mental and spiritual development.
  • Katichakrasana- Useful in the prevention and cure of disorders relating to lumbar region, spine and chest.
  • Urdhva Hastottanasana- Useful for lumbar pain, bronchial asthma and digestive disorders, reduces obesity and helps in increase of height.
  • Konasana- Useful in increase of height and energizes the digestive and respiratory systems and heart.

A set of Asanas, Mudras and Pranayamas practiced with faith, perseverance and insight rejuvenates the brain, heart, lungs, liver, pancreas, kidneys, bowels, nerves, muscles, tissues & glands of the body by ensuring oxygenated and balanced blood supply, kindles up the appetite, bestows control over seminal fluid, senses and mind and imparts increased vitality, vigour and longevity to the practitioner.


PRANAYAMA (Kumbhak)

Pranayama means control of breathing. Breathing influences both body and mind. Natural rhythmic inhalation and exhalation is associated with state of mind as well. By controlling the breathing pattern, the state of mind can also be controlled & modified. In deep meditation the breathing becomes slow, subtle and finally imperceptible. Once the body becomes stable through practice of Yogasanas, Sadhakas can go for practice of Pranayama i.e. regulation of breath finally leading to its prolongation and conquest without consequential discomfort and damage so as to acquire better ability to arrest modifications of the mind. A prolonged and step by step training is required for mastering the art of breath control. Some simple forms of breathing techniques are useful for increasing vitality, promotion of health and prevention of diseases. According to texts there types of Pranayama.

DHYANA (Mediation) :

Usually the mind of an individual is occupied with multifarious thoughts dissipating his energy in various directions resulting in restlessness. This also results in an inability to retain good thoughts. By meditation one acquires the power to arrest modifications of the mind and concentrate deep resulting in manifold benefits.

SHATKARMA (Six Cleansing Acts):


The Yogic texts prescribe six cleansing acts to eliminate the morbid matter from within to keep body & mind fit. These are Dhauti, Basti, Neti, Nauli, Trataka and Kapalabhati. Yamas & Niyamas (observances & restraints) reduce undue stress, bring about stability and happy state of mind by keeping one on right path. Asanas give steadiness, Pranayama makes the body light, Pratyahara imparts patience and Dharna trains the mind to concentrate and meditation develops the ability to stay and go deep on the desired object for prolonged period of time disengaging itself from other multifarious objects, Samadhi (Super consciousness) gives non-





attachment and finally salvation. The practice of Shatkarma purifies various organs of the body and the nerves making the practitioners fit physically as well as mentally to pursue different steps of Yoga and attain perfection.

Scientific Research on the Efficacy of Yoga

Systematic Research with proper controls have. been carried out in India and abroad to evaluate the prophylactic, promotive and curative potentials of Yoga. In India, reputed institutions such as Defence institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences (DIPAS), New Delhi, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, National Institute of Mental Health & Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore, Vivekananda Yoga Kendra (VYK), Bangalore and Lonawala School of Yoga, Maharasthra have conducted extensive research using physiological biochemical, psychological and clinical variables. Earlier research conducted at AIIMS, New Delhi has focussed on the physiological potentials of Yogis who developed extraordinary powers of staying in air tight compartments underground by lowering the metabolism as well as who can slowdown their heart rate under voluntary control. These studies indicated that long-term yogic practice helps o develop voluntary control over the autonomic nervous system.

Studies conducted revealed that six months of yogic practice leads to enhancement of parasympathetic activities, provides stability of autonomic balance during stress, produces a relative hypermetabolic state, improves thermoregulation efficiency, body flexibility, physical efficiency at sub maximal level of work, improves adaptability to environmental stress and cognitive function such as concentration, memory, learning efficiency and vigilance. Therapeutic potentials of selected yogic practice in the control and management of essential hypertension and the underlying physiological mechanism were also demonstrated.

Clinical studies have lucidly demonstrated the therapeutic potentials of yogic practice in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease such as Bronchitis and Asthma. Similar effects have been brought out on the therapeutic potentials of Yoga for the treatment of diabetes, low back pain and stress related psychosomatic disorders. Currently research program is in progress at DIPAS with regard to the Coronary Artery Disease regression by life style intervention which includes Raj Yoga meditation, low fat high fibers diet and aerobic exercise and the results are quite encouraging in terms of the risk factors management.

Afflictions and Diseases Which are Amenable for Treatment / Improvement Through Yoga Therapy

Yoga is effective in the management of the following disorders/ indications:
  • Amoebiasis
  • Arthritis      
  • Anxiety Neurosis
  • Allergic Skin Diseases
  • Depression
  • Bronchial Asthma

  • Constipation
  • Diabetes      
  • Hypertension      
  • Peptic ulcer      
  • Sciatica      
  • Postural defects      
  • Cervical
  • Gastritis
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome      
  • Respiratory Tract infections      
  • Insomnia      
  • Epilepsy      
  • Spondylosis
  • Hemiplegia      
  • Obesity      
  • Back pain      
  • Flatulence      
  • Anemia      

Infrastructure

Five institutes are conducting Yoga and Naturopathy course of51/2 years duration. There are 8 hospitals and 42 dispensaries for Yoga. In addition a large number of institutions are conducting short term and long term diploma course of 1 or 2 year duration

Central Council for Research in Yoga and Naturopathy

Central Council for Research in Yoga and Naturopathy, New Delhi (CCRYN) is an autonomous organization fully funded by the Department of Indian System of Medicine & Homoeopathy, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. The basic objective of the Council is to conduct scientific research in the field of Yoga and Naturopathy. Educational training and propogational aspects are also with in the Councils objectives.

The Council is presently financing the following activities :

(i)Clinical Research
(ii)One Year Diploma Course
(iii)Patient Care Centre

(iv)Seminar Workshop/Conference
(v)Treatment-cum-propagation Centre
(vi)Literary Research/Translation/Publication



The E-mail of the Council : ccryn@nda-vsnl-net.in.org Web-site address : http:/www.ccryn.org

Morarji Desai National Institute of Yoga, New Delhi

Morarji Desai National Institute of Yoga, New Delhi (MDNIY) is an autonomous organization fully funded by the Department of Indian Systems of Medicine & Homoeopathy, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. The objectives of the Institute are (a) to act as center of excellence in Yoga (b) to develop, promote and propagate the science of Yoga(c) to provide and promote facility for training, teaching and research to fulfill these objectives. The Institute has a 50 bedded hospital with basic facilities for diagnosis, yogic treatment and evaluation of patients suffering from various psychosomatic and metabolic diseases Counselling and Yoga therapy are also provided. It also runs Yoga and Meditation classes in addition to one year Diploma Course in Yoga


NATUROPATHY

Nature Cure is rightly described as a system of man living in harmony, with constructive principles of nature on physical, mental, moral and spiritual planes of living. Health is normal and constitutes a harmonious vibration of the elements and forces composing the human entity at the physical and mental level in conformity with the constructive principles of nature as applied to individual life. Disease is abnormal and an unharmonious vibration of the elements and forces constituting the human entity. The primary cause of disease is violation of mother nature's laws. Most of the health scientists are of the view that many diseases from which mankind is afflicted are the out come of wrong life styles, food habits and increasing pollution in the environment. Nature cure is a very old science of healing and method of living and has great promotive, curative & rehabilitative potentials.

  • For treatment, the system, primarily lays emphasis on correcting all the factors involved and allows the body to recover itself. The nature cure physicians simply help in nature's efforts to overcome disease by applying correct natural modalities and Channelising the natural forces to work under safe limits.
  • Most of the principles and practices of Naturopathy like Morbid Matter Theory, Fasting, Nutrition, Dietetics, Cleansing acts, Exercises, Massage, Longevity have been in practice in some form or the other and are well known to our ancient Vaidyas, Seers and Saints. Because of this, natural modalities and concepts form an integral part of Indian way of living, thinking tradition and culture.
  • Naturopathy believes that the natural method of living and of treatment are :
i)Return to Nature by the regulation of eating, drinking, breathing, talking, standing, sitting, bathing, dressing, working, resting, thinking the moral life, sexual and social activities etc., on a normal and natural basis.
ii)Eliminatory Remedies such as water, air, light, earth, magnetism, electricity etc.
iii)Bio-chemical Remedies such as scientific live food, selection and combination of natural food, juices.
iv)Mechanical Remedies such as corrective physical culture, yogic practices, massage, magnetic treatment, accupressure, water treatment.
v)Mental and spiritual remedies such as scientific relaxation, normal suggestions, constructive thought, the prayer of faith etc.
  • Three types of broadly classified diets include :
i)Eliminative diet - liquids lemon - citric juices -tender coconut water, vegetable soups, buttermilk etc.

ii)Soothing diet such as fruits, salads, boiled /steamed vegetables, sprouts, vegetable chutney.
iii)Constructive diet such as wholesome flour, unpolished rice, little pulses, sprouts, curd, less spicy curries etc.

Naturopathy believes that organism is composed of five great elements of nature and the soul:

i) Earth, tissues, muscles and bones.
ii) Water, fluids, blood, Lymph
iii) Air, the vital force, oxygen and carbon-dioxide.
iv) Ether, vacuum, cavities, lungs, stomach, intestines, uterus, urinary bladder.
v) Universal soul, individual soul.

Naturopathy adopts the following diagnostic methods

i)Full life case- history covering all the facts of life, since birth.
ii)Facial diagnosis - the science of facial expressions by studying the various characteristic features upon the body.
iii)Iris diagnosis - study of iris indicating the condition of various visceral organs.
iv)Modern clinical diagnosis to some extent.

The methods applied for cure in Naturopathy are the following :-

i)Water therapy : Water is the most ancient of all the remedial agents. It is employed in different forms in treatment and produces several types of physiological effects depending upon temperature and duration. Hydrotherapy is employed in almost all types of disease conditions.
ii)Air therapy : Fresh air is essential for good health. Air therapy is employed in different pressures and temperatures in variety of disease conditions.
iii)Fire therapy : Existence of all the creatures and forms depends upon "Agni" (Fire). In Nature Cure treatment, different temperatures are employed through different heating techniques to produce different specific effects.
iv)Space therapy : Congestion causes disease. Fasting is the best therapy to relieve congestion of body and mind.

v)Mud therapy : Mud absorbs, dissolves and eliminates the toxins and rejuvenates the body. It is employed in treatment of various diseases like constipation, skin diseases etc.
vi)Food therapy: Most of the disease are amenable through food therapy. As you eat so will you be physically as well as mentally. Your food is your medicine. These are the main slogans of Nature Cure.
vii)Massage therapy : Massage is generally employed for tonic, stimulant and sedative effects. It 'is an effective substitute for exercise.
viii)Accupressure : There are different points on hands, feet & body which are associated with different organs. By applying pressure on these selected points, related organs can be influenced for getting rid of their ailments.
ix)Magneto therapy : Magnets influence health. South and North poles of different powers and shapes are employed in treatment, by applying directly on different parts of the body or through charged up water or oil.
x)Chromo therapy : Sun rays have seven colours -violet, indigo, blue, green yellow, orange and red. These colours are employed through irradiation on body or by administering charged water, oil and pills for treatment.

Naturopathy has been found to be efficacious in the following disease conditions :

i)Asthma (Allergic & Bronchial)

iii)Anaemia
v)Allergic Skin Diseases
vii)Chronic non - healing ulcers
ix)Cirrhosis of liver
xi)Depression
xiii)Dysentery
xv)Eczema
xvii) Flatulence
xix)Gout

ii)Amoebiasis

iv)Anxiety Neurosis
vi)Cervical spondylosis
viii) Colitis
x)Constipation
xii)Diarrhoea
xiv)Diabetes Mellitus
xvi)Facial paralysis
xviii)Gastritis
xx)Hemiplegia

Infrastructure :

There are 21 Hospitals & 56 Dispensaries for Naturopathy treatment. About 400 practitioners have been registered by the State Government of Andhra Pradesh,


Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. There are 5 institutions imparting five-and-a-half year Degree Course in Naturopathy and Yoga. In addition, a number of institutions are imparting diploma course for shorter duration. The Central Government has established the National Institute of Naturopathy at Pune and Central Council for Research in Yoga and Naturopathy at New Delhi for the development of Naturopathy.

National institute of Naturopathy (NIN), Pune :

National Institute of Naturopathy has been set up as an autonomous organisation fully funded by this Department for the development and propagation of Naturopathy. The Institute runs out-patients clinic and Six month treatment attendant training programmes. The Institute is also providing financial assistance for conducting health education Camps, Naturopathy Awareness Programme, Treatment-cum-training camps, Workshop on Chronic Diseases, re-orientation programme for practicing Naturopaths. A monthly magazine 'Nisargopachar Varta' is also published by the Institute. The E-mail address of the institute is ninpunec@vsnl.com

Central Council for Research in Yoga & Naturopathy

Central Council for Research in Yoga & Naturopathy(CCRYN), is an autonomous body under the Department of ISM&H, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare. The basic objective of the Council is to conduct Scientific Research in the field of Yoga & Naturopathy. However, in the absence of any other Statutory body to look after the Education & Training, the objectives were latter amended to include Education, Training and Propagational aspects of these disciplines. At present, the Council is looking after the overall development of these traditional systems. In the absence of its own infrastructural facilities or direct units to conduct research, Council is executing its various activities/programmes by providing grant-in-aid to various voluntary organisations / NGOs.

Presently, the Council is financing the following activities.

i)Clinical Research
ii)One year Diploma
iii)Treatment-cum-propagation Centre

iv)Patient Care Centre (10/5 bedded)
v)Literary Research/Translation/Publication work
vi)Seminar / Workshop / Conference

The Council has adopted three more new Schemes for implementation which are:-

  • National Award to Best Yoga & Naturopathy Expert
  • Best Research Paper / Young Scientist Award
  • Awarding Scholarship to the Ph. D students.

The Council's Web-site address is
http:// www.ccryn.org.


For further details please contact the Directors of the respective
Councils at their addresses mentioned in the booklet,

or

Secretary,
Department of Indian Systems of Medicine & Homoeopathy.
Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India,
Red Cross Building, Red Cross Road, New Delhi 110001
Tel. 91-11-3715564 Fax. 91-11-3327660
E-mail secyism@hub.nic.in

Web-Site http ://indianmedicine. nic. in

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